Article Summary "Conceptual Understanding of Geological Concepts by Students With Visual Impairements" By Wild, Hilson, & Farrand

This article uses social-cultural theory, which can be seen from the interaction of students with the curator (p. 224). In addition, Brofonbrenner's idea is also seen in this article because students learn with the help of the ecosystem. This can be seen in the author's explanation on page 222, namely, "However, these students may have limited experience in informal settings due to transportation issues, family funds, or health services schedules. Melber and Brown (2008) suggest informal learning experiences in curricula for students with disabilities can be used as science-enrichment experiences to support formal classroom instruction".

a student with visual impairment

Knowledge is obtained from finding the answer to a problem for yourself, namely by learning it directly outside school hours and interacting with experts/curators immediately. The author explains it on page 229, namely, "One week of inquiry-based lessons was not enough support or time for the students to apply new learning to their existing knowledge and reorganize their understanding to become wholly scientific".

Learning is stimulated by way of experience active learning in an environment outside of their comfort zone (p. 225). Meanwhile, teaching is understood by allowing students to discover the answers by themselves and paying attention to the whole ecosystem, such as transportation to support students with visual impairment. Authors explain the teaching techniques used by writing "Inquiry-based instructional techniques have been reported for teaching the concepts of scale, environmental science, seasonal change, space, and sound to students with visual impairment".

Thus, field notes, video recordings, and semistructured interviews are the best way to collect data. Field notes and video recordings are very useful in recording student activities during the inquiry-based lessons process. Semistructured interviews help understand more deeply the cognitive processes that occur during the learning process.


Wild, T. A., Hilson, M. P., & Farrand, K. M. (2013). Conceptual understanding of geological concepts by students with visual impairements. Journal of Geoscience Education, 61(2), 222–230.


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