Article Summary "A Framework for understanding whiteness in mathematics education" By Battey & Leyva

At first, I thought that this article only uses Critical Race Theory (CRT) because it mentions race a lot. For example, on page 51, Battey & Leyva wrote "thus, whiteness is a foundational concept for racism. Whiteness creates an ideal race, with which to devalue and then oppress other racial groups". In addition, Battey & Leyva cites the question of Haney-Lopez (2006) on page 53 that race is only about two things, namely black and white, other groups such as Jews, Native Americans, Asians, and Latinos are more difficult to classify in the racial hierarchy in America. Union. The original sentence of the quote from Haney-Lopez (2006) is as follows, "While many in the United States conceptualize race as a Black/White binary, groups such as Jews, Native Americans, Asians, and Latin's have proved more difficult to classify in the racial hierarchy within the US context".

Dan Battey

However, on page 60, Battey & Leyva cites the opinion of Acker (2000) which states that gender can influence race through processes and actions to continue injustice on the broader society. The editorial of the sentence outlined by Battey & Leyva is "Acker (2000) used work on gender to examine how organizational logic impacts intersections with race and class through processes, actions, and meanings, maintaining inequities within a broader society". Battey & Leyva strengthen feminist theory with the findings of Acker (1990) and Moore (2008), namely "The labor level draws on both Acker's and Moore's work as well. Acker (1990) discussed how gendered forms of interaction place more of an emotional burden on women that they must bear in the workplace. In extending this work, Moore (2008) connected this emotional labor to African Americans' burden due to whiteness. This emotional labor comes in the form of regulating dissatisfaction, frustration, and anger due to being subjected to deficit views, racial slights, and forced compliance". Thus, in this article, Battey & Leyva also use feminist theory as an adjunct to CRT.

More clearly, this article explains about whiteness study. This can be seen in the title of the article which mentions "understanding whiteness". In addition, there are 178 whiteness words that the author uses in this article. On page 51, Battey & Leyva cites Kivel's (2011) statement that "racism is based on the concept of whiteness - a powerful fiction enforced by power and violence". This whiteness study is also essential to discuss in the concept of mathematics education because it affects students' lives, both inside and outside the classroom. Often African-American students are considered less capable of understanding mathematics than white students. The editorial of the sentence used in expressing discrimination of African-American students in mathematics class is on page 53, namely "these frames serve to position African American students as deficient and as needing to "live up," so to speak, to white norms of behavior and achievement".

white face mask

Students should gain knowledge without being differentiated by race, as stated by Martin (2013), namely "...the assertion of knowledge production as neutral and impartial, unconnected to power relations". However, the reality is that African-American students have experienced injustice in teaching and learning activities. Knowledge back then was acquired based on race. White students benefit from white supremacy as stated by Battey & Leyva on page 50 namely "while white privilege refers to benefits from racism in favor of whites, white supremacy is the systemic maintenance of the dominant position that produces white privilege".

Teaching and learning activities should not discriminate against race. However, in reality, in every domain, black students are considered less capable of learning mathematics. On page 67, Battey & Leyva quotes Ladson-Billings (1997) and Lubienski (2002), "The literature on African American and Latin students is replete with classroom settings that only ask students to replicate procedures, follow worksheets page by page, and that lack the opportunity to engage in cognitive depth". African-American students were given only simple assignments and only given orders to replicate according to procedures without involving a profound cognitive realm. The emotional realm of students also influences the low cognitive ability of students. On page 69, Battey & Leyva reveals that "this emotional labor is connected to slowing students' cognitive mathematical engagement as well". The discrimination experienced by students every day makes negative feelings such as sadness, frustration, and anger increase. In teaching, both in mathematics and other subjects, there should be no racial discrimination. Students whether white, African-American, Latino, Asian deserve equal equality in education.

One of the aims of this article is to provide a framework for understanding white supremacy, especially in mathematics education, through ideology, physical space, interaction, and student resistance (Battey & Leyva, 2016, p. 76). The data was obtained from previous articles and books for later analysis by the author. In other words, the author uses a literature study. The conclusion from this literature review is "there is a danger in re-centering whiteness". Students should be treated fairly in math classes, regardless of race.


Battey, D., & Leyva, L. A. (2016). A Framework for Understanding Whiteness in Mathematics Education. Journal of Urban Mathematics Education9(2), 49-80.

- Angga Hidayat


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