Cognitive and Social Cognitive Theories
Knowledge understood from this theory is as stated by Aubrey & Riley (2019, p. 40) regarding Piaget's view, namely "He did not believe that a concept could be taught directly to children; rather, children must build their knowledge of a concept based on other previous experiences." With this understanding, teaching and learning activities are carried out using drilling, especially in mathematics classrooms. This is also consistent with Bandura's knowledge that students learn by imitating the behavior of others (Aubrey & Riley, 2019, p. 136). However, Aubrey & Riley (2019, p. 144) also mentions that "Bandura sets out to demonstrate how children behavior was influenced by the people around them, showing a correlation between learning theory and cognitive approaches." This shows that teaching and learning activities will be more effective if it involves social activities. In math class, more competent students can help other students to achieve better understanding.
To obtain data in cognitive and social cognitive theories is to use interviews and observations. The use of interviews can more deeply understand a student's mental processes. This is reinforced by Cobb (2007), who quotes Danziger's statement (1990, p. 19), namely "the claims made on behalf of the quantitative and experimental method had doubted been wildly unrealistic, and in the light of changing priorities the illusions of the early years were unable to survive."
Aubrey, K. & Riley, A. (2019). Understanding and using educational theories. Sage Publications
Cobb, P. (2007). Putting philosophy to work. Second handbook of research on mathematics teaching and learning: A project of the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics, 1(1), 45-54