Article Summary "Beyond Love: A Critical Race Ethnography of the Schooling of Adolescent Black Males" By Garrett Albert Duncan

The issue of racism is very hotly discussed in the United States. Not only on television but also in college scientific articles. This article written by Duncan, clearly as the title implies, discusses racist issues, primarily African-American male students. Furthermore, the theory used clearly is critical race theory (CRT).


The method used in this research is ethnography. This is clear because ethnography is written as the title of the study. Ethnography was used to find out the stories experienced by black students when they were ostracized at the research site. This study was conducted at City High School (CHS) located in the US Midwest (Duncan, 2002, p. 131).

This theory is essential because Irin Marion Young in 1992 stated that marginalization is the most dangerous form of oppression (Duncan, 2002, p. 132). In this article, Duncan discusses a lot about the marginalized behavior accepted by African-American students. This continues because most people think that marginalization is a common thing, and this happens because the majority group considers the minority group to make mistakes repeatedly (Duncan, 2002, p. 132).

Furthermore, the experience of marginalization experienced by this African-American student was told to Duncan while he was conducting his research. For example, one student wants to take part in the math olympiad selection, but the teacher disagrees with the reason that the 100 value received by the student is not the value that the student should receive even though it was the teacher who gave the score 100 (Duncan, 2002, p. 139). This injustice is often reported by black male students, namely that their schoolmates often ignore them. Also, the teachers mistreat them. There is a double standard that they accept at school with white students' behavior (Duncan, 2002, p. 135).

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With the injustices received by black students, such as the example above that some students are not allowed to take part in the math olympiad selection, it will clearly have a negative impact on the academic development of black male students. They do not have the same opportunity to compete in the academic field. In fact, this competition is what makes school culture good in academic achievement (Duncan, 2002, p. 134).

Even though they often experience injustice, many black students still attend CHS because at CHS, black students have unlimited opportunities to join sports teams. In fact, other schools place restrictions on joining sports teams for black students (Duncan, 2002, p. 137).

The conclusion that can be drawn from this study is that black male students experience exclusion even more often than black female students. These black male students need not just a speech but also actual steps that care about them and want to guide them (Duncan, 2002, p. 140).


Duncan, G. A. (2002). Beyond love: A critical race ethnography of the schooling of adolescent Black males. Equity & excellence in education35(2), 131-143.


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